VSAN health check:

[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan cluster get
Cluster Information
   Enabled: true
   Current Local Time: 2018-07-02T11:06:14Z
   Local Node UUID: 5b14ec74-7715-3200-8fb4-2c600cc09955
   Local Node Type: NORMAL
   Local Node State: PRIMARY
   Local Node Health State: HEALTHY
   Sub-Cluster Primary UUID: 5b14ec74-7715-3200-8fb4-2c600cc09955
   Sub-Cluster Backup UUID: 5b14ec4f-e2f2-838d-a9b1-2c600cc09cdb
   Sub-Cluster UUID: 52a6e7e6-1236-512b-f72f-d12792ffdec8
   Sub-Cluster Membership Entry Revision: 7
   Sub-Cluster Member Count: 4
   Sub-Cluster Member UUIDs: 5b14ec74-7715-3200-8fb4-2c600cc09955, 5b14ec4f-e2f2-838d-a9b1-2c600cc09cdb, 5b14ec63-c4ba-3955-b1ed-2c600cc0a269, 5b39b9df-c616-3a52-c9c7-2c600cc09815
   Sub-Cluster Membership UUID: 35e92b5b-4c0a-431c-417e-2c600cc09955
   Unicast Mode Enabled: true
   Maintenance Mode State: OFF
   Config Generation: 96416225-c248-4fac-bfd9-d7de9565b225 8 2018-07-02T07:25:52.446
Monitor ongoing VSAN resync if any:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug resync list
   Object            Component              Bytes Left To Resync  GB Left To Resync
   ----------------  ---------------------  --------------------  -----------------
   31cfdc58-e68d...  Component:23d1dc58...             536870912  0.50
   31cfdc58-e68d...  Component:23d1dc58...            1073741824  1.00
   31cfdc58-e68d...  Component:23d1dc58...            1073741824  1.00
[root@copas-node1:~]
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug resync summary get
   Total Number Of Resyncing Objects: 0
   Total Bytes Left To Resync: 0
   Total GB Left To Resync: 0.00

VSAN cluster information:

[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan health cluster list
Health Test Name                                    Status
--------------------------------------------------  --------------------------
Overall health                                      red (Cluster health issue)
Cluster                                             red
  ESXi vSAN Health service installation             green
  vSAN Health Service up-to-date                    green
  Advanced vSAN configuration in sync               red
  vSAN CLOMD liveness                               green
  vSAN Disk Balance                                 green
  Resync operations throttling                      green
  Software version compatibility                    green
  Disk format version                               green
Network                                             green
  Hosts disconnected from VC                        green
  Hosts with connectivity issues                    green
  vSAN cluster partition                            green
  All hosts have a vSAN vmknic configured           green
  All hosts have matching subnets                   green
  vSAN: Basic (unicast) connectivity check          green
  vSAN: MTU check (ping with large packet size)     green
  vMotion: Basic (unicast) connectivity check       green
  vMotion: MTU check (ping with large packet size)  green
  Network latency check                             green
Physical disk                                       green
  Operation health                                  green
  Disk capacity                                     green
  Congestion                                        green
  Component limit health                            green
  Component metadata health                         green
  Memory pools (heaps)                              green
  Memory pools (slabs)                              green
Data                                                green
  vSAN object health                                green
Limits                                              green
  Current cluster situation                         green
  After 1 additional host failure                   green
  Host component limit                              green
Performance service                                 green
  Stats DB object                                   green
  Stats primary election                            green
  Performance data collection                       green
  All hosts contributing stats                      green
  Stats DB object conflicts                         green
Individual more detailed check:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan health cluster list
Health Test Name                                    Status
--------------------------------------------------  --------------------------
Overall health                                      red (Cluster health issue)
Cluster                                             red
  ESXi vSAN Health service installation             green
  vSAN Health Service up-to-date                    green
  Advanced vSAN configuration in sync               red
  vSAN CLOMD liveness                               green
  vSAN Disk Balance                                 green
  Resync operations throttling                      green
  Software version compatibility                    green
  Disk format version                               green
Network                                             green
  Hosts disconnected from VC                        green
  Hosts with connectivity issues                    green
  vSAN cluster partition                            green
  All hosts have a vSAN vmknic configured           green
  All hosts have matching subnets                   green
  vSAN: Basic (unicast) connectivity check          green
  vSAN: MTU check (ping with large packet size)     green
  vMotion: Basic (unicast) connectivity check       green
  vMotion: MTU check (ping with large packet size)  green
  Network latency check                             green
Physical disk                                       green
  Operation health                                  green
  Disk capacity                                     green
  Congestion                                        green
  Component limit health                            green
  Component metadata health                         green
  Memory pools (heaps)                              green
  Memory pools (slabs)                              green
Data                                                green
  vSAN object health                                green
Limits                                              green
  Current cluster situation                         green
  After 1 additional host failure                   green
  Host component limit                              green
Performance service                                 green
  Stats DB object                                   green
  Stats primary election                            green
  Performance data collection                       green
  All hosts contributing stats                      green
  Stats DB object conflicts                         green
Individual more detailed check:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan health cluster get -t "vSAN Disk Balance"
vSAN Disk Balance        green

Checks the vSAN disk balance status in all of hosts.
Ask VMware: http://www.vmware.com/esx/support/askvmware/index.php?eventtype=com.vmware.vsan.health.test.diskbalance

Overview
Metric                 Value
---------------------------------
Average Disk Usage     1 %
Maximum Disk Usage     2 %
Maximum Variance       0 %
LM Balance Index       0 %

Disk Balance
Host     Device     Rebalance State     Data To Move
---------------------------------------------------------

[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan health cluster get -t "Advanced vSAN configuration in sync"
Advanced vSAN configuration in sync        red

Checks if all of the hosts in a vSAN cluster have consistent non-default advanced configuration options. The advanced configuration with default value will be skipped and not shown in the result.
Ask VMware: http://www.vmware.com/esx/support/askvmware/index.php?eventtype=com.vmware.vsan.health.test.advcfgsync

Advanced vSAN configuration in sync
Option                   Value     Hosts with that value
-------------------------------------------------------------
VSAN.ClomRepairDelay     120       40.40.40.81
VSAN.ClomRepairDelay     60        40.40.40.84
VSAN.ClomRepairDelay     300       40.40.40.83
VSAN.ClomRepairDelay     360       40.40.40.82

[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan health cluster get -t "Disk format version"
Disk format version        green

Checks format version of all in-use vSAN disks, expected format version is 5.
Ask VMware: http://www.vmware.com/esx/support/askvmware/index.php?eventtype=com.vmware.vsan.health.test.upgradelowerhosts

Detailed vSAN disks format status
vSAN host                          Disks with older format     Check Result     Recommendation
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
copas-node4                            0/4                         green            OK
copas-node3                            0/4                         green            OK
copas-node2                            0/4                         green            OK
copas-node1                            0/4                         green            OK


[mgmtlocal@esxi-vxrail-quanta-03:~] esxcli vsan health cluster get -t "Disk capacity"
Disk capacity        green

Checks the free space on physical disks in the vSAN cluster.
Ask VMware: http://www.vmware.com/esx/support/askvmware/index.php?eventtype=com.vmware.vsan.health.test.physdiskcapacity

Disks with issues
Host     Disk     Capacity     Free Space     Rebalance State     UUID
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


[mgmtlocal@esxi-vxrail-quanta-03:~] esxcli vsan health cluster get -t "vSAN object health"
vSAN object health        green

Checks the health status of all vSAN objects.
Ask VMware: http://www.vmware.com/esx/support/askvmware/index.php?eventtype=com.vmware.vsan.health.test.objecthealth

Object health overview
Health/Objects                                       Number     Objects UUID                                                                                                                                        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
inaccessible                                         0                                                                                                                                                              
healthy                                              9          c8f1145b-a27f-aa0f-769f-2c600cc0a269,c8f1145b-f240-0222-91db-2c600cc0a269,b47c275b-3147-202c-da28-2c600cc09815,a5de345b-3893-cf64-0cc8-2c600cc09cdb,c7f1145b-fc4c-de82-db8c-2c600cc0a269,77de345b-cc8c-99bd-20c0-2c600cc09cdb,c3d8205b-5475-62d1-7821-2c600cc0a269,d78d1f5b-f473-55d8-4d2b-2c600cc09815,a9de345b-944d-c3fb-12f8-2c600cc09815
reduced-availability-with-no-rebuild                 0                                                                                                                                                              
non-availability-related-reconfig                    0                                                                                                                                                              
datamove                                             0                                                                                                                                                              
non-availability-related-incompliance                0                                                                                                                                                              
reduced-availability-with-active-rebuild             0                                                                                                                                                              
reduced-availability-with-no-rebuild-delay-timer     0

...

Detailed debug level info.
 Information about your disks and congestion:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug disk list |more
UUID: 522e4d0b-ad4b-d583-59e7-a80338fd4ee7
   Name: naa.5000cca04fb20f40
   Owner: copas-node1
   Version: 5
   Disk Group: 522e4d0b-ad4b-d583-59e7-a80338fd4ee7
   Disk Tier: Cache
   SSD: true
   In Cmmds: true
   In Vsi: true
   Model: HUSMM118 CLAR800
   Encryption: false
   Deduplication: false
   Dedup Ratio: N/A
   Overall Health: green
   Metadata Health: green
   Operational Health: green
   Congestion Health:
         State: green
         Congestion Value: 0
         Congestion Area: none
         All Congestion Fields:
   Space Health:

UUID: 528c3b27-2957-2eef-b376-7a89a8a9c4db
   Name: naa.5002538a06863630
   Owner: esxi-vxrail-quanta-03.Domain.com
   Version: 5
   Disk Group: 522e4d0b-ad4b-d583-59e7-a80338fd4ee7
   Disk Tier: Capacity
...
Gives back all objects back including component states:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug object list |more
Object UUID: c8f1145b-a27f-aa0f-769f-2c600cc0a269
   Version: 5
   Health: healthy
   Owner: copas-node1
   Size: 16.00 GB
   Used: 27.42 GB
   Policy:
      proportionalCapacity: 100
      spbmProfileId: a1f4e9ed-bfb2-4fce-9838-9543d8124bf4
      hostFailuresToTolerate: 1
      CSN: 50
      spbmProfileGenerationNumber: 0
      SCSN: 45
      spbmProfileName: VXRAIL-SYSTEM-STORAGE-PROFILE

   Configuration:

      RAID_1
         Component: b88b1f5b-dafc-d779-d552-2c600cc0a269
           Component State: ACTIVE,  Address Space(B): 17179869184 (16.00GB),  Disk UUID: 528c3b27-2957-2eef-b376-7a89a8a9c4db,  Disk Name: naa.5002538a06863630:2
           Votes: 1,  Capacity Used(B): 17532190720 (16.33GB),  Physical Capacity Used(B): 14722007040 (13.71GB),  Host Name: esxi-vxrail-quanta-03.Domain.com
         Component: d98d385b-d0fa-eb05-bd86-2c600cc0a269
           Component State: ACTIVE,  Address Space(B): 17179869184 (16.00GB),  Disk UUID: 5293323a-bfa6-4413-de23-4330e743651f,  Disk Name: naa.5002538a06b9b8b0:2
           Votes: 1,  Capacity Used(B): 17532190720 (16.33GB),  Physical Capacity Used(B): 14717812736 (13.71GB),  Host Name: esxi-vxrail-quanta-01.Domain.com
      Witness: ba8e385b-0eee-b643-2ee5-2c600cc0a269
        Component State: ACTIVE,  Address Space(B): 0 (0.00GB),  Disk UUID: 52a731db-d11b-11de-2eef-305b0ff86d02,  Disk Name: naa.5002538a06bb25a0:2
        Votes: 1,  Capacity Used(B): 12582912 (0.01GB),  Physical Capacity Used(B): 4194304 (0.00GB),  Host Name: esxi-vxrail-quanta-02.Domain.com

   Type: vdisk
   Path: /vmfs/volumes/vsan:52a6e7e61236512b-f72fd12792ffdec8/c7f1145b-fc4c-de82-db8c-2c600cc0a269/VxRail Manager.vmdk (Exists)
   Group UUID: c7f1145b-fc4c-de82-db8c-2c600cc0a269
   Directory Name: N/A

Object UUID: c8f1145b-f240-0222-91db-2c600cc0a269
   Version: 5
   Health: healthy
   Owner: copas-node1
   Size: 16.00 GB
   Used: 14.33 GB
...
Information about your disk controllers (HCL information, Queue depth)
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug controller list
Device Name: vmhba2
   Device Display Name: Avago (LSI Logic) Fusion-MPT 12GSAS SAS3008 PCI-Express
   Used By VSAN: true
   PCI ID: 1000/0097/152d/89ca
   Driver Name: lsi_msgpt3
   Driver Version: 15.00.00.00-1OEM.600.0.0.2768847
   Max Supported Queue Depth: 2936
   Firmware Version: N/A

Device Name: vmhba0
   Device Display Name: Intel Corporation Wellsburg AHCI Controller
   Used By VSAN: false
   PCI ID: 8086/8d62/152d/89b2
   Driver Name: vmw_ahci
...
VSAN debug limit info:
[root@copas-node1:~] esxcli vsan debug limit get
   Component Limit Health: green
   Max Components: 9000
   Free Components: 8991
   Disk Free Space Health: green
   Lowest Free Disk Space: 98 %
   Used Disk Space: 181701443584 bytes
   Used Disk Space (GB): 169.22 GB
   Total Disk Space: 11522298347520 bytes
   Total Disk Space (GB): 10730.98 GB
   Read Cache Free Reservation Health: green
   Reserved Read Cache Size: 0 bytes
   Reserved Read Cache Size (GB): 0.00 GB
   Total Read Cache Size: 0 bytes
   Total Read Cache Size (GB): 0.00 GB

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